J. R. Mooney Galleries - Resources

Types of Art Reproductions:

What is a giclee?

A giclee (zhee-CLAY), is an individually produced, high-resolution, high-fidelity, high tech reproduction done on a special large format printer. Giclees are produced from digital scans of existing artwork.

What is an Enhanced giclee?

This is a Giclée that has certain areas of the image (such as highlights, sky etc.) enhanced with oil paint colors by the artist to add a paint brush texture to the print. Thus giving more of an effect of an original oil painting while also increasing its value.

What is a lithgraph?

Lithographs are made through a unique process, quite different from the printing techniques used for newspapers or books. The "traditional" prints are made by engraving an image or text on metal plates, wooden blocks or other soft materials. These are then run through the printing presses. Lithographs, on the other hand, involve drawing mirror images on smooth stone tablets. This is a painstaking and elaborate process that requires great skill, patience and time. The lithograph must also be approved by the artist before it goes through the press.  Once the plate has passed inspection, an oil-based ink is applied to certain areas, while the blank areas are wiped with water. (This is due to the principle that oil and water don't mix.) It is then pressed on a cotton-type paper, transferring the ink. Colored lithographs will go through several presses, one for black, red, yellow and blue, in order to achieve the desired shade. In fact, lithographs can take as much time to make as an original art work.  

What is a serigraph?

Serigraphy is the name commonly used for fine art prints created using the silk-screen technique, the word coming from the Greek roots of seri (silk) and graph (write or draw).  The word serigraph can be used interchangeably with silkscreen, but is often preferred by fine artists to differentiate their work from mass-produced silkscreen items like t-shirts, posters, and coffee mugs.

Fine artists create limited edition silk-screens by applying layer upon layer of pigment to the print surface by pressing it through a mesh screen containing a stencil.  The process commonly uses inks for pigment and stencils made of a variety of materials.  Paper and plastic cutouts can be used as stencils, but using stencil fluid, which is applied like paint to the screen using a brush, stylus, or palette knife, creates a more "painterly" look.  When the liquid stencil dries, it prevents the transfer of ink through the screen at that location, creating a "negative space" on the print.  The artist has to think backward from the normal process of adding pigment to a surface to remain visible (defined as an additive process).  In serigraphy, the pigment is added to the print surface to cover much of the previous layers, with the stencil allowing only the desired pigments to remain untouched and visible in the final print.  For this reason, serigraphy is called a reductive process.  

What is a canvas transfer?

A canvas transfer is a print or poster image that has been transferred and fixed to a canvas surface. A paper poster or print is coated with a special film that lifts the image from the paper. The film, with the embedded image, is heat-sealed to the canvas surface. The image is now part of the canvas, taking on the texture of the canvas surface. The whole piece is given a clear UV protective coating and stretched over a wooden framework.

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